CNC router build

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Attention Attention: Dangerous machine ahead Attention
Use only at your own risk, and after proper instruction! ASK BERNHARD to get safety and instructions !!!before!!! turning it on.

CNC Mill

Release status: beta [box doku]

CNC mill with window.jpg
Description Ask Bernhard for instructions
Author(s)  Tarwin
Last Version  v1.1 (09.04.21 -BotoxBitch)

We want to use the big-ass CNC portal Thomas rescued from the trash to build a CNC router.


  • Mill Aluminium! (needs ballscrews to really work) see Subproject: Portal
  • route PCBs
  • be open for extensions, easy tool change (needs a very expensive ATC-Spindle and proper toolholding, expensive aswell)
  • Add Tool Touch off and a small 3D Probe for extended Usability (Tool touch off is in the lab, needs to be hooked up and the machine to be configured)
  • 3D Probe like this one (currently nice to have)

Current cost: 5€ per 60 minutes


Motor System

X & Y Motors

Z Motor

Motor controllers

  • 2x JMC 3M860 -- Manual: File:3M860.pdf
  • 1x Another Stepper driver, different from the JMC 3M860 with a different cable configuration, which was bought as a replacment for a faulty JMC3M860 File:CWD3M860.pdf

Power supplies

Motor cabeling

Z axis

  • 1 = U
  • 2 = V
  • 3 = W
  • 4 = NC
  • 5 = break brown cable
  • 6 = break white cable

X axis

  • 1 = U
  • 2 = V
  • 3 = W
  • 4 = NC
  • 5 = NC
  • 6 = NC


X & Y

  • Type unknown
  • Seems to be an Solid-state Auto Switch, not just a Reed sensor, same pinout as the SMC


  • SMC D-F9H
    Smc endstop doku.png
    (datasheet) (Solid-state Auto Switch, works like a PNP transistor)
  • Omron EE-SX870p Photomicrosensor (datasheet)


  • all endstops can be driven with 5 to 24V.
  • Pinout is: brown: VCC / blue: GND / black: Signal
  • Pinout on X: brown: VCC / green: GND / white: Signal
  • all have a red led which goes out if they sense something
  • Some input here

Endstop RJ45 connector -> Replaced

  1. - Signal Z-
  2. - Signal Z+
  3. - VCC (5-24V)
  4. - Signal Y-
  5. - GND
  6. - Signal Y+
  7. - Signal X+
  8. - Signal X-

As by 09.07.2020 the RJ45 Connector has been disposed of and the Limit Switches are connected directly to the CSMIO/IP-M


Bought from AliExpress, [page]


    1  GND
    2  +5V
    3  A+
    4  B+
    5  A-
    6  B-
    7  Emergency Stop (pin 1)
    8  Emergency Stop (pin 2)
    9  LED+
   10  LED-
   11  COM
   12  X
   13  Y
   14  Z
   15  4
   16  x1
   17  x10
   18  x100

Encoder Wheel

The wheel needs a +5V power supply, and outputs a slightly lower voltage on A+/B+/A-/B-. One step of the wheel goes through a full cycle. This is not a regular switch, so no connection can be measured.

It is a rotary encoder with grey code. Need to check 4 bit or 2 bit. Some arduino Librarys are available Demotape (talk)

Emergency Stop

This is a standart Mushroom Knot

Inside are 2 simple normally closed switch.

one is connected to the control unit to stop the program

the second one is connected with the power switch so if pressed the Power for motors and spindle will be switched off ( power for the control unit stay on)

The two switches are needed for a two channel emergency stop. Cut off all energy with two separated contactor (Schütze). Demotape (talk)


A red LED, 20mA standard current drive.

Selection Switches

These switches are connected through the "Enable" button on the left. No signal is received unless the button is pressed.

The X, Y, Z and 4 pins are connected to COM when the respective axis is selected, and the enable switch pressed.

The x1, x10 and x100 pins are connected to COM when the respective speed is selected, and the enable switch pressed.

Connection to Linux CNC

The hand wheel is connected to an arduino.Hat With a Atmega 32u4 Microcontroller(Arduino Leonardo, Arduino Pro mini)? The Arduino is like as a keyboard and send only key presses. Demotape (talk)

Controller -> Replaced with CSMIO/IP-M

-> CNC router build/CNC_router_controller

Manuals for CNC Controller:


  • Manual for the Controller is on the CD and on the Mill PC


Connector Pins = Cable

1 = 1 2 = 2 3 = 3 4 = PE

Cable = controller side

Cable 1 = U Cable 2 = V Cable 3 = W PE Cable = E


  • Currently Using Mach3 as CNC Software. WORKS
  • We are looking into Fusion360 as possible CAM. We got a Postprocessor, A few cycles are still subject to testing so there will be no Public release yet.
  • We got a license for E-CAM aswell. NEED TO EVALUATE

Archive:CNC_router_software_eval Kept for Archiving.


Fix up portal

  • The portal needs to put together and fixed up
    • Put portal together, replace belt - done
    • identifiy / Test endstops - done
    • Build portal frame - done
    • Try Z axis brake - done
    • Build Table for better stability and moveability - done
    • Build exhaust for spindle - in progress ( one printed part broke need redesign more stable and print again ) pipe and tube ared ordered
    • Create an holder for Water Tank + Cover for Power and pipe insert - done
    • Front plate - done
    • Movement Mechanic for the front/top Cover - done
    • milling flat the area of the Vice - to do after redesign
    • create holder to be able to fix the vive in place ( in perfect angle ) - to do after Redesign
    • Measure and drill the last holes of the spindle holder - Done
    • NEW: Replace The X-Beam and Z-Axis. This will allow for Ballscrews to be installed and make the machine more rigid, so milling alluminium precisely will become a real Thing.
    • NEW: Raise enough money for this Project to happen. (approx. 1000-1200€ needed.)

Frame and table

  • The X Axis is raised, the linear bearing runs far above the tool head. This implies a high center of gravity.
  • Frame needs to be very stable
    • Old workbench?

First draft:


Tool head

Technical Data of the stuff we bought

  • needs to be powerful (Aluminium) and precise (pcbs)
    • Find matching Spindle with driver and cooling - done
    • Bought this: 2.2kw wassergekühlte Frässpindel
    • This can be controlled manually on the inverter or over serial.
    • needs its own fuse and a fault current fuse (FI Schutzschalter)
    • Technical data:
      • 2.2kW / 8,000 - 24,000 RPM
      • ER20 spring collets (Spannbuchsen)
      • Driver: HY02D223B
      • Manual of the driver
      • water cooled
  • NEW: ADD an old PC Radiator for additional Cooling
  • NEW: Add an electric Valve for Pneumatics to enable automated Chip Blasting and Air / Mist Cooling

Software & Controller

  • What will tell the drivers what to do? PC/parallel port, Mikrokontroller, old CNC hardware, ...
  • Hardware? What do we need?
  • Main page for this: CNC_router_software_eval
  • NEW: Currently Running MACH3 with Fusion360 for Programming


Last picture of the portal before it ware put apart and brought to the space