Difference between revisions of "CNC router build"

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The hand wheel act as a keyboard.  [[User:Demotape|Demotape]] ([[User talk:Demotape|talk]])
The hand wheel is connected to an arduino. The Arduino is like as a keyboard and send only key presses.  [[User:Demotape|Demotape]] ([[User talk:Demotape|talk]])
== Controller ==
== Controller ==

Revision as of 20:28, 26 June 2018

Attention Attention: Dangerous machine ahead Attention
Use only at your own risk, and after proper instruction!

CNC Mill

Release status: experimental [box doku]

Author(s)  Tarwin
Last Version  v0.1

We want to use the big-ass CNC portal Thomas rescued from the trash to build a CNC router.


  • Mill Aluminium!
  • route PCBs
  • be open for extensions, easy tool change


Motor System

X & Y Motors

Z Motor

Motor controllers

Power supplies

Motor cabeling

Z axis

  • 1 = U
  • 2 = V
  • 3 = W
  • 4 = NC
  • 5 = break brown cable
  • 6 = break white cable

X axis

  • 1 = U
  • 2 = V
  • 3 = W
  • 4 = NC
  • 5 = NC
  • 6 = NC


X & Y

  • Type unknown
  • Seems to be an Solid-state Auto Switch, not just a Reed sensor, same pinout as the SMC


  • SMC D-F9H
    Smc endstop doku.png
    (datasheet) (Solid-state Auto Switch, works like a PNP transistor)
  • Omron EE-SX870p Photomicrosensor (datasheet)


  • all endstops can be driven with 5 to 24V.
  • Pinout is: brown: VCC / blue: GND / black: Signal
  • Pinout on X: brown: VCC / green: GND / white: Signal
  • all have a red led which goes out if they sense something
  • Some input here

Endstop RJ45 connector

  1. - Signal Z-
  2. - Signal Z+
  3. - VCC (5-24V)
  4. - Signal Y-
  5. - GND
  6. - Signal Y+
  7. - Signal X+
  8. - Signal X-


Bought from AliExpress, [page]


CNC Handwheel Pinout.png

    1  GND
    2  +5V
    3  A+
    4  B+
    5  A-
    6  B-
    7  Emergency Stop (pin 1)
    8  Emergency Stop (pin 2)
    9  LED+
   10  LED-
   11  COM
   12  X
   13  Y
   14  Z
   15  4
   16  x1
   17  x10
   18  x100

Encoder Wheel

The wheel needs a +5V power supply, and outputs a slightly lower voltage on A+/B+/A-/B-. One step of the wheel goes through a full cycle. This is not a regular switch, so no connection can be measured.

It is a rotary encoder with grey code. Need to check 4 bit or 2 bit. Some arduino Librarys are available https://github.com/brianlow/Rotary Demotape (talk)

Emergency Stop

This is a standart Mushroom Knot

Inside are 2 simple normally closed switch.

one is connected to the control unit to stop the program

the second one is connected with the power switch so if pressed the Power for motors and spindle will be switched off ( power for the control unit stay on)

The two switches are needed for a two channel emergency stop. Cut off all energy with two separated contactor (Schütze). Demotape (talk)


A red LED, 20mA standard current drive.

Selection Switches

These switches are connected through the "Enable" button on the left. No signal is received unless the button is pressed.

The X, Y, Z and 4 pins are connected to COM when the respective axis is selected, and the enable switch pressed.

The x1, x10 and x100 pins are connected to COM when the respective speed is selected, and the enable switch pressed.

Connection to Linux CNC


The hand wheel is connected to an arduino. The Arduino is like as a keyboard and send only key presses. Demotape (talk)


-> CNC_router_controller

Manuals for CNC Controller:


Connector Pins = Cable

1 = 1 2 = 2 3 = 3 4 = PE

Cable = controller side

Cable 1 = U Cable 2 = V Cable 3 = W PE Cable = E




Fix up portal

  • The portal needs to put together and fixed up
    • Put portal together, replace belt - done
    • identifiy / Test endstops - done
    • Build portal frame - in progress (Thomas E)
    • Try Z axis brake - done

Frame and table

  • The X Axis is raised, the linear bearing runs far above the tool head. This implies a high center of gravity.
  • Frame needs to be very stable
    • Old workbench?

First draft:


Tool head

  • needs to be powerful (Aluminium) and precise (pcbs)
    • Find matching Spindle with driver and cooling - done
    • Bought this: 2.2kw wassergekühlte Frässpindel
    • This can be controlled manually on the inverter or over serial.
    • needs its own fuse and a fault current fuse (FI Schutzschalter)
    • Technical data:
      • 2.2kW / 8,000 - 24,000 RPM
      • ER20 spring collets (Spannbuchsen)
      • Driver: HY02D223B
      • Manual of the driver
      • water cooled

Software & Controller

  • What will tell the drivers what to do? PC/parallel port, Mikrokontroller, old CNC hardware, ...
  • Hardware? What do we need?
  • Main page for this: CNC_router_software_eval


Last picture of the portal before it ware put apart and brought to the space